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Ayurveda > A History of Ayurveda

Milestones in the Development of Ayurveda and WHO Report on the growing demand for Ayurvedic Medicines
Source: Department of Ayurveda, Govt of India

  • Divine origin of Ayurveda from Lord Brahma - Dates back to origin of human race
  • 5000 BC - Mention of various references on Health, Diseases and Medicinal Plants in Rig-veda and Atharv-veda
  • 1000 BC - Origin of Attreya and Dhanwantari School of Ayurveda
  • 600 BC - Documentation of Charaka Samhita
  • 500 BC- Documentation of Sushruta Samhita
  • 1100-1800AD - Advent of Muslim Rule and start of the Decline of Ayurveda
  • 1800 AD - Resurrection of Ayurvedic system of Medicine under the rule of Peshwas
  • 1827 - Classes in Ayurvedic medicine opened in Government Sanskrit College, Calcutta
  • 1833 - Discontinuation of classes in Government Sanskrit College by British
  • 1917 - Dr. Komar Commission (one-man commission) to make investigation in indigenous system of medicine
  • 1920 - Indian National Congress Convention at Nagpur recommended acceptance of Ayurvedic system of medicine as India's National Health Care System
  • 1921 - Mahatma Gandhi inaugurated Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College in Delhi
  • 1927 - Mahamana Madan Mohan Malviya established Ayurveda college in B. H.U., Varanasi
  • 1940 - Enforcement of Drugs and Cosmetics Act for Ayurvedic/Siddha/Unani medicines-
  • 1943 - Bhora Committee or Health Survey and Development Committee recognised past services of indigenous medicines but failed to recommend for its further development.
  • 1946 - Chopra Committee recommended systems of old and modern systems of medicines to evolve a common system of medicine.
  • 1953 - Pharmaceutical Enquiry Committee headed by Dr. Bhatia, for intensive research in indigenous drugs of Ayurveda.
  • 1955 - Recommendation of Dave Committee for uniform standards of Ayurveda education
  • 1956-57 - Establishment of Institute of Post-Graduate Training and Research in Gujarat Ayurvedic University, Jamnagar, Gujarat.
  • 1958 - Udupa Committee set up. It recommended that there is a need for integrated system of medicine and a training course in Siddha and Ayurveda.
  • 1963-64 - Establishment of Post Graduate Institute of Ayurveda at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
  • 1964 - Amendment of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 for Indian systems of medicines/drugs
  • 1964-65 - Establishment of Central Board of Siddha and Ayurvedic Education
  • 1969 - Setting up of an apex Research Body for Indian medicine & Homoeopathy, 'Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy (CCRIMH)'
  • 1970 - Establishment of Pharmacopoeia Laboratory for Indian medicine, Ghaziabad, U.P.
  • 1971 - Constitution of Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) under IMCC Act- 1970 for regulation of education and practice.
  • 1972-73 - Establishment of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan
  • 1976 - Publication of Part-I of Ayurvedic formulary containing 444 preparations
  • 1978 - Establishment of Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS)
  • 1982 - Passing of Amended Drugs and Cosmetics Act regulating import/export of Indian Systems of Medicine
  • 1983 - Setting up of Indian Medicine Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. in Mohan, Almora Distt., Uttaranchal.
  • 1986 - Silver Jubilee function of Jawaharlal Nehru Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Garden and Harbarium, Pune. Inaugurated by Shri R. Venkataraman, Vice-president of India .
  • 1986 - Second World Conference on Yoga & Ayurveda held at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
  • 1988 - Foundation stone of Jawaharlal Nehru Anusandhan Bhawan, Institutional Area, Janakpuri, New Delhi by Honorable Vice President of India, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
  • 1989 - Establishment of National Academy of Ayurveda (Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth)
  • 1995 - Creation of separate Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy in Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India.
  • 1996 - Introduction of Extra mural Research Programme for accredited organizations with central assistance
  • 1997 - Implementation of Central Scheme in 33 organizations for development of agro-techniques of important medicinal plants
  • 1998 - Maiden participation of Ayurveda along with other systems in India International Trade Fair
  • 1998 - Implementation of Central Scheme in 32 laboratories for developing pharmacopoeial standards of Medicinal Plants/ ISM Formulations
  • 1998 - Establishment of specialty clinic of Ayurveda in Central Govt. Hospital (Safdarjung Hospital) New Delhi
  • 1998-1999 - Implementation of IEC( Information, Education & Communication) Scheme for NGOs for propagation and popularization of Ayurveda & other systems
  • 1997 to 1999 - Participation in Mystique India ( Exhibition cum fair on Indian Traditions)
  • 1999 - Introduction of Vanaspati Van Scheme for large scale cultivation of Medicinal Plants
  • 2000 - Inauguration of Ayurveda conference at New York, USA by Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Sh. Atal Bihari Vajpayee
  • 2000 - Gazette Notification for constitution of Medicinal Plant Board under the Dept. of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy
  • 2000 - Publication of 2nd volume of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia
  • 2000 - Introduction 7 of Ayurvedic Medicines in RCH Programme
  • 2000 - Constitution of Advisory group for research in Ayurveda
  • 2000- Policy Decision on mainstreaming of Ayurveda in RCH programme as per National Population Policy
  • 2000-2001- Implementation of Central Scheme of assistance for strengthening of State Drug Testing Laborites and Pharmacies.
  • 2001 - Publication of 3rd volume of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia
  • 2001 - Publication of English edition of 2nd volume of Ayurvedic Formulary of India
  • 2001 - Maiden participation of ISM tableau on Republic Day
  • 2001 - Exhibition and presentation of Ayurveda during World Health Assembly, Geneva
  • 2001 - Presentation on evidence based support by Dept. of ISM&H before House of Lords, U.K. against Sir Walton Committee's Report on status and nomenclature of Ayurveda among Complementary and Alternative systems of Medicine
  • 2001 - Participation of Dept. in "Made in India" exhibition organized by CII in South Africa

Statistics and Regulatory Situation for Ayurvedic Medicine in India
Source: World Health Organization (WHO)

Traditional medicine is widely used in India, especially in rural areas where 70% of the Indian Population lives. There are 2860 hospitals, with a total of 45,720 beds, providing traditional Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy in India. In 1998, more than 75% of these beds were occupied by patients receiving Ayurvedic treatment, which is by far the most commonly practiced form of traditional medicine in India. There are 22,100 dispensaries of traditional medicine. There are 587,536 registered traditional medicine practitioners and homeopaths, who are both institutionally and non-institutionally qualified.

Regulatory Situation
Ayurveda, unani, siddha, naturopathy, homeopathy, and yoga are all recognized by the Government of India. The first step in granting this recognition was the creation of the Central Council of Indian Medicine Act of 1970. The main mandates of the Central Council are as follows:

  • To standardize training by prescribing minimum standards of education in traditional medicine, although not all traditional practitioners and homeopaths need to be institutionally trained to practice;
  • to advise the central Government in matters relating to recognition / withdrawal of medical qualifications in traditional medicine in India;
  • to maintain the central register of Indian medicine, revise the register from time to time, prescribe standards of professional conduct and etiquette, and develop a code of ethics to be observed by practitioners of traditional medicine in India.
  • All traditional medicine practitioners and homeopaths must be registered to practice.

The Central Council of Homeopathy, constituted in 1973, has the same mandates. The Indian Government created the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy in March 1995. The primary areas of work for the Department are education, standardization of medicines, enhancement of availability of raw materials, research and development, information dissemination, communication, and the involvement of traditional medicine and homeopathy in national health care. More than 4000 personnel work in these areas.

The Indian Government seeks the active and positive use of traditional medicine and homeopathy in national health programs, family welfare programs, and primary health care.

Growing World Demand for Ayurvedic Medicine
Source: Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy website

India has 16 Agroclimatic zones, 45000 different plant species and 15000 medicinal plants The Indian Systems of Medicine have identified 1500 medicinal plants, of which 500 species are mostly used in the preparation of drugs. The medicinal plants contribute to cater 80% of the raw materials used in the preparation of drugs. The effectiveness of these drugs mainly depend upon the proper use and sustained availability of genuine raw materials. The domestic market of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy is of the order of Rs.4000 crores (2000), which is expanding day by day.

The Ayurveda drug market alone is of the order of Rs. 3500 crores (2000). Besides this, there is also a growing demand for natural products including items of medicinal value/pharmaceuticals, food supplements and cosmetics in both domestic and international markets. Presently India's export from Medicinal and Herbal plants is Rs. 446 crores (2000) only which would be raised to Rs.3000 crores annually by 2005. India, with its diversified biodiversity has a tremendous potential and advantage in this emerging area.

According to WHO report, over 80% of the world population relies on traditional medicine largely plant based for their primary healthcare needs. The EXIM bank of India, in its report (1997) has reported the value of medicinal plants related trade in India of the order of 5.5 billion US dollars and is growing rapidly. According to WHO, the international market of herbal products is estimated to be US $ 62 billion which is poised to grow to US $ 5 trillion by the year 2050. India's share in the global export market of medicinal plants related trade is just 0.5%.




Index
Introduction
Medicines
Ayurvedic Milestones
Ayurvedic Thought
 Vaat, Pitta, Kafa, Dosh
 Dhatu, Mala, Fire
Pathology - Ama
Treatments
 Shaman
 Ashtang Ayurved
 Agad Tantra
 Bhut-vidya
 Kayachikitsa
 Kaumar Bhrutya Tantra
 Purva-karma
 Panch-karma
 Vaman
 Virechan
 Basti
 Nasya
 Rakta-moksha
 Shaman
 Shalya Tantra
 Shalakya tantra
 Rasayana-Chikitsa
 Vajikaran-Chikitsa

Actual Case Notes
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 Bleeding per anum
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 Diarrhea
 Hair Loss
 Infections
 Libido
 Osteoarthritis
 Psychiatry
 Pregnancy Care
 Senile Debility
 Solution To Baldness
 Vaat Related Fever

Academic References
Ayurvedic Herbs
NCCAM

 
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